P1150114r

The pump on the right is part number 251 955 651 and it’s made of weapons-grade unobtanium-around-here. It’s also buggered.

The one on the left comes from… well, this one came from a VW Fox, but that’s just a Golf 1, the Golf 2 used the same thing.

P1150115r

The only difference is the connector.

P1150117r

Bit of work with a crimping tool and, as they say, Robert is your mother’s brother.





The first copy protection scheme I cracked on my Apple ][ was that of Zork. It wasn’t that difficult, the data prologue bits were changed from D5 AA AD to D5 AA BC. Copying the disk involved patching the standard copy program COPYA and then editing the disk so that it could read itself.

But today I’m interested in the IBM PC version of Zork. Like the Apple ][ version, the disk could not be copied by the standard tool (in this case diskcopy) but Copy II PC worked just fine. Interestingly, the disk allowed you to make one copy of the game for backup purposes.

The weak point of copy protected disks is that the standard BIOS must be able to read the first bit of the disk. This code is then executed to read the “uncopyable” part of the disk. Anyone can read the first sector, disassemble it, and work out how to read the rest of the disk. Granted, this process is sometimes extremely difficult. Not so in the case of Zork.

On the IBM PC, the BIOS reads track 0 sector 1 into segment 0, offset 7C00 and jumps to it.

0000:7C00 FA     CLI                   Disable interrupts

The first thing after disabling the interrupts (which is pretty standard) is to change the pointer (at 0000:0078) to the disk controller parameter block to point at the first location after this actual code, 0000:7C79.

0000:7C01 2BC0   SUB AX,AX             AX=0
0000:7C03 8ED8   MOV DS,AX             DS=AX=0
0000:7C05 BB7800 MOV BX,0078           DISK_POINTER, points to parameter block
0000:7C08 B97900 MOV CX,0079
0000:7C0B BAC007 MOV DX,07C0
0000:7C0E 8B37   MOV SI,[BX]           Save current pointer at 0000:0078 in SI
0000:7C10 8B7F02 MOV DI,[BX+02]        Save current pointer at 0000:007A in DI
0000:7C13 890F   MOV [BX],CX           0000:0078 = 0079
0000:7C15 895702 MOV [BX+02],DX        0000:007A = 07C0

0000:7C18 8CC8   MOV AX,CS
0000:7C1A 8ED8   MOV DS,AX             Set DS = CS

; Set stack to 0000:7C00               Fairly standard
0000:7C1C BA0000 MOV DX,0000
0000:7C1F 8ED2   MOV SS,DX
0000:7C21 BB007C MOV BX,7C00
0000:7C24 8BE3   MOV SP,BX

0000:7C26 FB     STI                   Enable interrupts
0000:7C27 B86000 MOV AX,0060
0000:7C2A 8ED8   MOV DS,AX             Set DS and ES to 0x0060
0000:7C2C 8EC0   MOV ES,AX

; Reset disk drive (AH=0)
0000:7C2E 2BC0   SUB AX,AX AX=0
0000:7C30 2BD2   SUB DX,DX DX=0
0000:7C32 CD13   INT 13

0000:7C34 BA0300 MOV DX,0003           DX=3
0000:7C37 2BDB   SUB BX,BX             BX=0
0000:7C39 B501   MOV CH,01             CH=1
0000:7C3B 52     PUSH DX               Save DX
0000:7C3C B101   MOV CL,01             CL=1
0000:7C3E 51     PUSH CX               Save CX (= 0101)
0000:7C3F 2BD2   SUB DX,DX             DX=0
0000:7C41 B80402 MOV AX,0204           AH=2, AL=4
0000:7C44 CD13   INT 13

INT 13 with AH=2 reads AL (=4) sectors from cylinder CH (=1), sector CL (=1) of head/drive DX (0/0) into ES:BX (0060:0000). This read uses the new parameter block further down, which differs from the standard parameter block in that it specifies 1024 byte sectors, four sectors per track.

0000:7C46 721C   JB 7C64               If INT13 returns error, print "ILL" and halt
0000:7C48 59     POP CX                Restore CX (I don't think INT13 corrupts CX, so I don't know why)
0000:7C49 FEC5   INC CH                Next cylinder
0000:7C4B 81C30010 ADD BX,1000         Move data pointer 4 kb ahead
0000:7C4F 5A     POP DX                Track (cylinder) counter, started at 3...
0000:7C50 4A     DEC DX                ...2...1...
0000:7C51 75E8   JNZ 7C3B              Loop back unless 0

So we have now read three tracks of four sectors of 1024 bytes each into 0060:0000, 0060:1000 and 0060:2000.

; Restore disk controller parameter block pointer
0000:7C53 2BC0   SUB AX,AX               AX=0
0000:7C55 8ED8   MOV DS,AX               DX=0
0000:7C57 BB7800 MOV BX,0078             BX=0078
0000:7C5A 8937   MOV [BX],SI
0000:7C5C 897F02 MOV [BX+02],DI
0000:7C5F 06     PUSH ES
0000:7C60 2BC0   SUB AX,AX
0000:7C62 50     PUSH AX
0000:7C63 CB     RETF                    POP IP = 0, POP CS = ES

RETF pulls an instruction pointer and code segment from the stack, and execution moves there (0060:0000).

; ERROR
0000:7C64 2BDB   SUB BX,BX               BX=0
0000:7C66 B049   MOV AL,49
0000:7C68 B40E   MOV AH,0E
0000:7C6A CD10   INT 10                  AH=0E, teletype output, 49 "I"
0000:7C6C B04C   MOV AL,4C
0000:7C6E B40E   MOV AH,0E
0000:7C70 CD10   INT 10                  "L"
0000:7C72 B04C   MOV AL,4C
0000:7C74 B40E   MOV AH,0E
0000:7C76 CD10   INT 10                  "L"
0000:7C78 F4     HLT

0000:7C79 CF 02 25 03 04 2A FF 50 F6 19 04

This is the modified parameter block, 03 = 1024 bytes/sector (normally 2 = 512 bytes/sector) , 04 = 4 sectors per track (normally 8).
Of course MSDOS diskcopy barfs at 1024 byte sectors and there’s your copy protection.

ZORKTOOLS will rewrite the 4×1024 byte sectors to 8×512 byte sectors and patch the bootloader to match.