The first copy protection scheme I cracked on my Apple ][ was that of Zork. It wasn’t that difficult, the data prologue bits were changed from D5 AA AD to D5 AA BC. Copying the disk involved patching the standard copy program COPYA and then editing the disk so that it could read itself.

But today I’m interested in the IBM PC version of Zork. Like the Apple ][ version, the disk could not be copied by the standard tool (in this case diskcopy) but Copy II PC worked just fine. Interestingly, the disk allowed you to make one copy of the game for backup purposes.

The weak point of copy protected disks is that the standard BIOS must be able to read the first bit of the disk. This code is then executed to read the “uncopyable” part of the disk. Anyone can read the first sector, disassemble it, and work out how to read the rest of the disk. Granted, this process is sometimes extremely difficult. Not so in the case of Zork.

On the IBM PC, the BIOS reads track 0 sector 1 into segment 0, offset 7C00 and jumps to it.

0000:7C00 FA     CLI                   Disable interrupts

The first thing after disabling the interrupts (which is pretty standard) is to change the pointer (at 0000:0078) to the disk controller parameter block to point at the first location after this actual code, 0000:7C79.

0000:7C01 2BC0   SUB AX,AX             AX=0
0000:7C03 8ED8   MOV DS,AX             DS=AX=0
0000:7C05 BB7800 MOV BX,0078           DISK_POINTER, points to parameter block
0000:7C08 B97900 MOV CX,0079
0000:7C0B BAC007 MOV DX,07C0
0000:7C0E 8B37   MOV SI,[BX]           Save current pointer at 0000:0078 in SI
0000:7C10 8B7F02 MOV DI,[BX+02]        Save current pointer at 0000:007A in DI
0000:7C13 890F   MOV [BX],CX           0000:0078 = 0079
0000:7C15 895702 MOV [BX+02],DX        0000:007A = 07C0

0000:7C18 8CC8   MOV AX,CS
0000:7C1A 8ED8   MOV DS,AX             Set DS = CS

; Set stack to 0000:7C00               Fairly standard
0000:7C1C BA0000 MOV DX,0000
0000:7C1F 8ED2   MOV SS,DX
0000:7C21 BB007C MOV BX,7C00
0000:7C24 8BE3   MOV SP,BX

0000:7C26 FB     STI                   Enable interrupts
0000:7C27 B86000 MOV AX,0060
0000:7C2A 8ED8   MOV DS,AX             Set DS and ES to 0x0060
0000:7C2C 8EC0   MOV ES,AX

; Reset disk drive (AH=0)
0000:7C2E 2BC0   SUB AX,AX AX=0
0000:7C30 2BD2   SUB DX,DX DX=0
0000:7C32 CD13   INT 13

0000:7C34 BA0300 MOV DX,0003           DX=3
0000:7C37 2BDB   SUB BX,BX             BX=0
0000:7C39 B501   MOV CH,01             CH=1
0000:7C3B 52     PUSH DX               Save DX
0000:7C3C B101   MOV CL,01             CL=1
0000:7C3E 51     PUSH CX               Save CX (= 0101)
0000:7C3F 2BD2   SUB DX,DX             DX=0
0000:7C41 B80402 MOV AX,0204           AH=2, AL=4
0000:7C44 CD13   INT 13

INT 13 with AH=2 reads AL (=4) sectors from cylinder CH (=1), sector CL (=1) of head/drive DX (0/0) into ES:BX (0060:0000). This read uses the new parameter block further down, which differs from the standard parameter block in that it specifies 1024 byte sectors, four sectors per track.

0000:7C46 721C   JB 7C64               If INT13 returns error, print "ILL" and halt
0000:7C48 59     POP CX                Restore CX (I don't think INT13 corrupts CX, so I don't know why)
0000:7C49 FEC5   INC CH                Next cylinder
0000:7C4B 81C30010 ADD BX,1000         Move data pointer 4 kb ahead
0000:7C4F 5A     POP DX                Track (cylinder) counter, started at 3...
0000:7C50 4A     DEC DX                ...2...1...
0000:7C51 75E8   JNZ 7C3B              Loop back unless 0

So we have now read three tracks of four sectors of 1024 bytes each into 0060:0000, 0060:1000 and 0060:2000.

; Restore disk controller parameter block pointer
0000:7C53 2BC0   SUB AX,AX               AX=0
0000:7C55 8ED8   MOV DS,AX               DX=0
0000:7C57 BB7800 MOV BX,0078             BX=0078
0000:7C5A 8937   MOV [BX],SI
0000:7C5C 897F02 MOV [BX+02],DI
0000:7C5F 06     PUSH ES
0000:7C60 2BC0   SUB AX,AX
0000:7C62 50     PUSH AX
0000:7C63 CB     RETF                    POP IP = 0, POP CS = ES

RETF pulls an instruction pointer and code segment from the stack, and execution moves there (0060:0000).

0000:7C64 2BDB   SUB BX,BX               BX=0
0000:7C66 B049   MOV AL,49
0000:7C68 B40E   MOV AH,0E
0000:7C6A CD10   INT 10                  AH=0E, teletype output, 49 "I"
0000:7C6C B04C   MOV AL,4C
0000:7C6E B40E   MOV AH,0E
0000:7C70 CD10   INT 10                  "L"
0000:7C72 B04C   MOV AL,4C
0000:7C74 B40E   MOV AH,0E
0000:7C76 CD10   INT 10                  "L"
0000:7C78 F4     HLT

0000:7C79 CF 02 25 03 04 2A FF 50 F6 19 04

This is the modified parameter block, 03 = 1024 bytes/sector (normally 2 = 512 bytes/sector) , 04 = 4 sectors per track (normally 8).
Of course MSDOS diskcopy barfs at 1024 byte sectors and there’s your copy protection.

ZORKTOOLS will rewrite the 4×1024 byte sectors to 8×512 byte sectors and patch the bootloader to match.


(IMO, of course. And Geek Alert)


This is the switch and tuner schematic for an MFJ-949E Versa Tuner II. Great little unit, with a built-in dummy load. It has a switch that selects the dummy load, then the three antenna connectors in pass-through mode, then the three antenna connectors through the matching network, and then the dummy load again… through the matching network.

Which means that if you want to tune into the dummy load, you have to use the setting all the way to the left, or you have to adjust the tuner to match the dummy load to the rig, using the switch setting on the right.

Now why would you need to match a 50 ohm dummy load to your rig? Insane. The dummy load switch setting on the right should connect straight to the dummy load, not via the tuner.

I have a soldering iron, I can fix it.


Dankie Oom Gielie.



I installed Windows 3.0 for the first time today* From seven 720 kilobyte stiffy** disks. And it worked first time.


* Windows 3.1, I’ve installed countless times. Windows 3.0, never.

** Yea that’s what we call them here.

I mentioned previously that I figured out how to make a new display for an FT-x90R. My own rig is still in pieces ‘cos I’m not quite happy with the software yet (or actually, with my reverse engineering of the display protocol, but it’s the same thing in the end).

But Dave ZS5DF wanted his rig fixed so I fitted a new display, even though it doesn’t have the F key “P” priority display function in firmware yet.


Two filament bulbs, because the replacement display needs light from the right-hand side and the S meter is on the left-hand side.


Component cost is close to R500 which almost puts it in good-money-after-bad territory but I like these little radios.


Younger kid had to build an electric motor for a school project. Having a garage full of stuff, it was no hassle to find everything required to build one.



I made her wind the coil.

But the question is, how do kids complete (or even conceptualise) something like this if they don’t have a Wouter around the house?




This is a C1166 Pulse Tetrode made by English Electric, who also made transistors. Good for switching 17 500 volts at 15 amps. But only for 1 microsecond every 1 millisecond (1T4 and AA battery for scale).

The filament alone needs almost 60 watts (9 amps at 6.3 volts).

Quite useless unless one wants to build a glowbug radar or something. But quite marvelous in a way.


*ring* *ring*

“Hello, Crazy Mo’s pizza place, how may we help you?”

“Well we’d like *yadda* *yadda* *yadda* *yadda* and a mac & cheese”

“Would you like the mac & cheese with penne or tagliatelle?”

*blink*   *blink*



Mahala gratis verniet and for free, nogal.

And it seems to work, that’s indeed a 4.7k resistor.

Look at the ridiculous scale on this thing — not only uA but nA as well. Why would I want to measure a nano-amp?

I think this will become part of my permanent test setup.

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